Traditional Butterworth filter cannot adaptively adjust the cutoff frequency for different images, in view of this problem, the proposed frequency adaptive two-dimensional Butterworth filter, through the high frequency band energy in the total image energy ratio, adaptively adjust the cutoff frequency. The color space used is Hue-Saturation-Intensity(HSI), and the data format replaces the fixed-point number with a floating-point number, achieving high-speed, high-precision 2D-Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) and 2D-Inverse Fast Fourier Transform(IFFT). Deeply considering the underlying structure of Xilinx 7 series Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA) hardware, the filter is implemented on the xc7a100tfgg484-3 chip, and on this basis, the image details are enhanced, and the image color is colorless and the image details are richer. The hardware simulation results show that the image with a resolution of 512×512 takes 6548.892 μs to complete a 2D-FFT, which is 99.9998% similar to the spectrum structure calculated by software. The entire design trade-offs between resources, power consumption, and performance.